What?! Do Geese Really have Teeth?!
[24 Awesome Pictures]

Most birds are born without teeth. Are geese one of them? Or do they have a set of perfectly aligned teeth? Read more to find out!

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David A. Swanson

July 11, 2021

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What’s This Post About?

Most birds are born without teeth. The birds’ beaks are so strong that they do not require teeth strength for feeding or fighting. The fact that some birds are born with teeth has been regarded as a myth by many researchers.

Have you ever seen a geese’s mouth? These aggressive birds have a lot to hide. The goose might be toothed but not necessarily with teeth. This post covers everything about this bird species and provides an insight into the secrets of a geese’s lifestyle.

Geese do not have teeth like other animals. The bird species cannot produce enamel which is why they lack a perfect set of white teeth. However, geese do have teeth-like structures on their tongue known as ‘tomia.’ These sharp structures vary in size and shape but cannot be labeled as teeth.


What Are Geese?

Before diving into the mysteries of geese, let's get to know them better. 



The goose is a bird that belongs to the waterfowl species. These large birds weigh around 2.8 to 3.5 kg and are 68 to 94 cm long. Geese belong to the Anatidae family and comprise different geese; Branta (the black geese) and Anser (the white and grey geese).


The family of this waterfowl species also consists of swans and ducks. The swans are typically larger than the geese, while the ducks are a smaller species.


It takes two years for a goose to be fully matured.


Mating & Breeding

Geese are migratory birds. During the breeding season, they travel up north, and during the winters, they tend to move much further to the south. Geese live in pairs; two of them will get together and raise a family. They are known to stay and live together for the rest of their lives, i.e., up to 25 years.

When a male goose turns three years old, he starts displaying courtship to begin the mating process. Female goose usually begins to mate when they are four years of age. The breeding season is between February to April, depending on the place’s climate.


Wild geese start mating from mid-winter to spring. The male geese display courtship where they create a loud honking noise and neck rolling behaviors. Both male and female extend their necks and move them up and down while raising their bodies and head. They also flap their wings rapidly to express excitement and interest.  

Geese mate once a year. They have a clutch size of 5 to 6, and the eggs are mainly in the months’ March to May. Most eggs hatch during early May, after 24 to 29 days of incubation, where both the parents are responsible for taking care of the babies.


A group of geese on the ground is called a 'gaggle,' and in-flight, it is known as a 'wedge' or a 'skein.'


Special Characteristics

One thing that differentiates these beautiful creatures from other bird species is that geese fly in flocks and form a giant ‘V’ shape across the sky. This makes it easy for them to fly further and quicker.

The fun fact about geese is that they motivate each other to speed during the flight by honking. If a goose from the flock gets tired, he exchanges positions with the one at the back.


interesting fact

Geese are very attached to their group; if one of them is wounded, some geese from the flock will follow it down and protect it.


Geese are vegetarians. They forage by grazing a variety of food sources. However, they mostly prefer to consume the following items:

· Seeds.

· Leaves.

· Grass.

· Shoots and Stems.

· Berries.

· Insects.


fun fact

Geese can stretch their necks to a great length at times of threat.

Do Geese Have Teeth?

Birds do not have teeth, then what can be seen inside the mouth of a goose? Keep Reading!

Geese are a type of bird species. It is established that geese do not have teeth. However, they have teeth-like structures known as ‘tomia’. Tomia is a sharp structure made up of cartilage and is placed on the tongue.


Tomia is engraved within the beak and tongue rather than being referred to as separate body parts. However, the functions they perform are pretty similar to what teeth perform for other animals.

Since birds cannot build enamel, the tomia are not made of bone nor are they as solid, tough, and durable as natural teeth. The advantage of the tomia is that they allow the geese to cut their food for efficient consumption.

fun fact

Geese can fly up to 40 mph, which is a breakneck speed.

Shape & Texture

Tomia, even though made of cartilage, are complex and sharp in form. These structures vary in shape and size. The placement is in a line on the beak and tongue of the geese. The sharpness of the tomia is such that it helps the birds rip out the vegetation from the ground.

The fact is that geese are birds that cannot chew their food; they need to tear apart the food into smaller particles to swallow it.

The tomia also help the bird defend itself. These teeth-like structures are so strong and widespread that their bite can cause severe damage.



 If a goose feels threatened, it will bite. It is better not to touch a goose and stay far away as the geese bite can draw blood from your skin.


Reason & Use

Tomia, an alternative for teeth, is crucial for birds like geese. Yes, it is weird to see them lined up on the jaw and tongue, but there are specific reasons.

Geese usually rely on grains, roots, grass, and other low-growing vegetation to survive. Since their food source is enrooted in the ground, they need to have the ability to grip, pull, and tear it apart. A smooth, slippery beak would be a challenging task to fulfill.


This is where tomia come into use. The ridges between the tomia are lined up on the tongue, helping the birds grip the grass and tear it up for consumption.

Apart from low-ground vegetation, geese also like to consume small rodents and insects. The spike on the ridges makes it easy for the geese to hold the insects firmly before they can bite into their delicious meal.


fun fact

Geese love to consume blueberries.

How Do You Know If a Goose Is About to Attack?

Reading about the tomia, we sure know that geese are dangerous birds. Therefore, it is essential to look for signs to avoid getting attacked.

Many signs can help us predict a geese attack. The signs include a series of staring, stretches, and head movements. Geese are not aggressive but very territorial. If they find you invading their space or if they sense a threat from you, they might attack.


Geese mostly tend to get hostile and territorial during the breeding season. They are defensive about their space. The females are responsible for incubating and guarding the eggs, while the male protects his family.


true fact

Both male and female geese may attack any perceived threat.

Signs To Look Out For

It would be best to look out for various signs to keep yourself protected from any geese attacks. The signs are as follows:

· The goose starts to stare at you. If they are not consistently looking your way, you are safe, but if their eyes are fixated on you for quite some time, you need to move away. A strict direct stare means that the goose perceives you as a threat.

· The goose starts to crane its neck. Extending the neck means that the goose is warning you to back off. You may notice that after they crane their necks, they may start honking or hissing at you, leading to you being their target.

· The goose moves his head in a vertical motion. This is usually the last phase the goose enters before attacking. Here the goose will pump its head at you. This is when you should protect yourself and distant yourself from the animal.


There are around 30 species of geese worldwide.


How To Avoid Geese Attacks?

By now, you know the signs you need to look for to determine how angry a goose is. Next, let's talk about what you need to do in order to avoid being attacked.


Animal attacks can be very horrifying, especially those by big animals. Similarly, thinking about a goose attacking you can be distressing. To avoid the attack, you can follow a particular set of tips and tricks:

· Do not stress or create panic . Animals can instantly detect any signs of fear or anger. They might misinterpret your panic as a threat and attack.

· Walk backward slowly . Keep your eyes on the goose while taking small steps back. Do not turn or run; it may worsen the situation.

· Keep calm . Do not rush or run away. Peacefully start taking small steps so that you do not trip or fall. Your tripping may scare the bird, and it may launch a quick attack on you.

· Do not be aggressive towards the goose if you yell or shout at the goose or even wave. The goose might get defensive. They might perceive you as someone trying to invade their space which you do not want.


Keep these tips in mind to assist you if you ever happen to face a goose. However, if you plan to keep geese as pets, consider purchasing the Ultimate Guide to Geese Keeping to learn better. 

The Ultimate Pet Goose Guidebook

This is the reference book that goose-lovers have relied upon for years, newly revised with over 200 added pages!

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Do Birds Have Teeth?

The truth about a bird's teeth.

No, almost all bird species do not have teeth. If we look back at ancient times, there were descendants of a group of reptiles known as the Archosaurs in the Mesozoic era. These descendant birds had teeth, but the genes have changed drastically over the years leading to a loss of teeth.


The reason for the loss of teeth in birds is not that complicated. According to previous research, birds do not have teeth as it helps to improve their flight. Birds, for no reason, require a tooth set; to enhance their flying process, they should remove any extra baggage such as teeth from their beaks.


Most birds have a solid and sharp beak. They swallow their food whole, which is why no teeth are required. Although some birds may have tooth-like structures in their beak to help them create a strong grip on the food, they cannot be defined as teeth. 


Baby birds, however, have small white structures known as ‘egg teeth’. The egg tooth is placed at the end of their beaks and is used to pierce the egg’s shell during the hatching period. The tooth then falls off after a few days.


cool fact

Birds swallow their food through a muscular organism in their stomach known as 'gizzard'.

Keep Reading!


Geese do not fall under the category of violent birds, but they can get territorial at times. By now, you know that geese have teeth-like structures in their mouth known as tomia that they use while eating or attacking.


Geese are beautiful birds to watch and are an incredible sight to see when floating on the water with their young. However, it is recommended that you observe their beauty from a distance. If they perceive you as a threat, the situation might get worse for you.

If you look forward to observing and photographing these birds, read this fun blog  for expert advice on bird photography.

Backyard Bird Photography: Essential Gear for Beginners - Here is Your Expert & Exciting Guide!

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By David A. Swanson

Bird Watching USA

My name is David and I'm the the founder of Bird Watching USA! I started Bird Watching with My father-in-law many years ago, and I've become an addict to watching these beautiful creatures. I've learnt so much over about bird watching over the years that I want to share with the world everything I know about them!

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David A. Swanson Picture

David A. Swanson

Bird Watching USA

My name is David and I'm the the founder of Bird Watching USA! I started Bird Watching with My father-in-law many years ago, and I've become an addict to watching these beautiful creatures. I've learnt so much over about bird watching over the years that I want to share with the world everything I know about them!



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